The Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) is a medium-sized wader.
Their breeding habitat is bogs, marshes and wet meadows with short vegetation. Ruff are migratory, wintering in southern and western Europe, Africa and India. They are highly gregarious, with a wintering flock of 1 million birds reported in Senegal. This species is a rare migrant to North America, but has nested (but is not known to have hatched eggs) in Alaska.